Nikolaus Schareika published the article “Nomads/Pastoralists and Development” in The International Encyclopedia of Anthropology. Vol. 9, edited by Hilary Callan, 1–11. Oxford, UK: John Wiley.
Pastoral development constitutes an interface between two different, difficult to reconcile, sociocultural systems: that of pastoral nomads as opposed to that of nation‐states and development agencies. Pastoral development originated in colonial policies and projects to boost the livestock sector, organize the colonial economy, and sedentarize mobile people. It initially opposed key values and requirements of pastoral nomads such as mobility and socially restricted livestock marketing. By now, pastoral development has turned to initiatives that shall support pastoral livelihoods, reduce poverty, promote social equality, and allow for participation. Pastoral development has come to acknowledge nomadic mobility and opportunistic resource management as an integral part of pastoral systems and concentrates on global issues that threaten nomadic livelihoods. These include environmental degradation, population growth, climate change, land privatization, and political marginalization. Given the magnitude of problems in pastoral societies, livelihood diversification, increased market participation, and education are promoted strategies.
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